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**Intro:** I put together a guide of the most important parts that are still tied to Google in LineageOS, which is rightfully the most popular custom Android ROM. This guide was written for technically-proficient users (as in users that can not only follow instructions, but are also open to learning new things should they not have a grasp on how to do a certain thing in Android). If you do not have the time (no worries, not everyone does) or do not feel comfortable, then I highly recommend looking at [/e/ Foundation's ROM](https://e.foundation/), which is a ROM specifically designed with user privacy at its core. It's based on LineageOS and while still a young project, it has a very promising future. Also, aside from section #3 A-GPS, the /e/ ROM addresses all of the issues below out of the box.   **Guide Versions:** This could be considered version 3 of this guide. The first rough version is [here](https://old.reddit.com/r/LineageOS/comments/ccs5wy/degoogling_lineageos_in_2019/) and a second version (very similar to this) is [here](https://old.reddit.com/r/LineageOS/comments/cl5c90/degoogling_lineageos_instructions_august_2019/).   **Assumptions:** - Phone running Lineage OS 16.0 (latest version) or 15.1 (NOTICE: version still supported, but currently unknown End of Life) or 14.1 (WARNING: officially deprecated in February 2019) (NOTE: each LOS version might require a different solution) - Root access (either official su package or unofficial magisk) - No OpenGApps (that would be counter-productive). microG should not have an effect.   The following are listed in no particular order:   ## **1) DNS** **Default set-up:** LineageOS uses AOSP default DNS servers, which are Google's DNS servers 8.8.8.8. **Solution:** Replace Google's DNS servers with those of a preffered DNS provider (see below for recommendations). **How-to:** LOS 16.0: Settings > Network & internet > Advanced > Private DNS > Private DNS provider hostname > [enter your preferred DNS provider hostname here. Note that traditional IP addresses are not accepted in this field, so you need to enter a hostname of a provider that supports DNS-over-TLS (DoT)] LOS 14.1 and 15.1: i) Manual edit for each network (works only for wi-fi). Cumbersome and impractical when connecting to more wifi hotspots and unusable when connecting to public hotspots or using mobile data. Wifi list -> Long press select network -> Modify network -> IP settings from DHCP to Static -> Fill out all fields. ii) Bypass by using a VPN tunnel. Either a full on VPN (OpenVPN or Wireguard) or a DNS-only VPN ([DNS66](https://www.f-droid.org/en/packages/org.jak_linux.dns66/) or [1.1.1.1](https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.cloudflare.onedotonedotonedotone)). Simple, but more of a circumvention than solution. Requires background VPN to be constantly on (battery usage increase can be significant). iii) App 'DNS man' on [F-Droid](https://f-droid.org/en/packages/io.github.otakuchiyan.dnsman/). Unmaintained since 2016, but could work -> has 4 setting methods -> try System properties first. iv) For Magisk users, you can use the [CloudflareDNS4Magisk Module](https://forum.xda-developers.com/apps/magisk/module-cloudfaredns4magisk-t3772375) v) [UNCONFIRMED!] Manual edit of /system/build.prop by adding the following lines net.dns1=1.1.1.1 net.dns2=1.0.0.1 net.rmnet0.dns1=1.1.1.1 net.rmnet0.dns2=1.0.0.1 net.wlan0.dns1=1.1.1.1 net.wlan0.dns2=1.0.0.1   DNS provider recommendations (get DNS server IP addresses or hostnames from the sites directly): 1. [Cloudflare](https://1.1.1.1/dns/), offers DoT (for LOS 16 Private DNS), global, 2. [OpenNIC](https://www.opennic.org/), no DoT, global, 3. [DNSWatch](https://dns.watch/), no DoT, Germany, 4. [UncensoredDNS](https://blog.uncensoreddns.org/), offers DoT (on unicast.uncensoreddns.org), Denmark, 5. [CZ.NIC](https://www.nic.cz/odvr/), offers DoT, Czech Republic. [Wikipedia list of DNS providers](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_recursive_name_server)   # **2) Captive Portals** **Default set-up:** The Captive Portal detection checks for a HTTP 204 code from a Google domain (connectivitycheck.gstatic.com for LOS 13+) **Solution:** Replace Google's captive portal server with a third party alternative. **How-to:** Enter the following in terminal (or use adb - for that method, see German source below) and for the domains pick your preferred option from the list below: For LOS 14.1: su settings put captive_portal_server captiveportal.kuketz.de settings put global captive_portal_http_url http://captiveportal.kuketz.de settings put global captive_portal_https_url https://captiveportal.kuketz.de For LOS 15.1 and 16.0: su su settings put global captive_portal_http_url http://captiveportal.kuketz.de settings put global captive_portal_https_url https://captiveportal.kuketz.de settings put global captive_portal_fallback_url http://captiveportal.kuketz.de settings put global captive_portal_other_fallback_urls http://captiveportal.kuketz.de   Select a non-Google server from the following options:   http://captiveportal.kuketz.de [Source, German](https://www.kuketz-blog.de/android-captive-portal-check-204-http-antwort-von-captiveportal-kuketz-de/). Site and server belong to Mike Kuketz; a German security researcher. Based on his blog and privacy policy, Mike is the genuine article. Reach your own conclusion, but I have zero qualms recommending his server. I also encourage reading through his site and forum (German only). Great posts for privacy-conscious users.   https://e.foundation/net_204/ (if you forget the "/" at the end, it won't work) and http://204.ecloud.global (for http) Hosted at ScaleWay, Netherlands. These are newly set-up check servers by the people behind the /e/ ROM, which is based on LOS and focuses on user-privacy.   http://elementary.io/generate_204 Hosted at Cloudflare, USA. ElementaryOS is a, dare I say it, game-changing linux distro based off of Ubuntu and which puts heavy focus on UI and UX - think of them as the macOS of linux.   http://httpstat.us/204 Hosted at Microsoft's Azure, USA. Site created by two US IT professionals. Claim no data stored.   Further reading on Android captive portals with explained commands is [here](https://android.stackexchange.com/questions/100657/how-to-disable-captive-portal-detection-how-to-remove-exclamation-mark-on-wi-fi) and [here](https://android.stackexchange.com/questions/186993/captive-portal-parameters). **Notes:** - Do not use connectivity-check.ubuntu.com as previously suggested. It does not work correctly, is hosted on Google Cloud and the Ubuntu community (not only on reddit) is quite touchy when you try to raise this issue and suggest they self-host. - whatever server you choose (and yes, you can make one yourself), make sure it returns a HTTP 204 code (use curl -I to make sure)   # **3) A-GPS** **Default set-up:** LineageOS defaults to supl.google.com for [SUPL data](https://patents.google.com/patent/US20150005006), which helps in speeding up device positioning (aka TTFF) when using A-GPS, but each request to server is accompanied by device's IMEI. **Solution:** replace every mention of Google's A-GPS SUPL servers in /system/etc/gps.conf with that of one of the following servers. Apparently, disabling A-GPS and using GPS only might not help. Sadly, very little credible research exists on this topic. Firewalling GPS is also a possible solution. Note that this increases TTFF, as it relies solely on GPS sattelite signal instead of local cell tower data. Servers found: * supl.sonyericsson.com - Working (port 7275 is open), located in Ireland, hosted with Amazon. * supl.vodafone.com - Working (port 7275 is open), located in Germany, self-hosted. * agpss.orange.fr - live, but port is filtered, located in France, self-hosted. * agps.supl.telstra.com - live, but port is filtered, located in Australia, self-hosted. * 221.176.0.55 - default Xiaomi SUPL server IP, belonging to state-owned China Mobile and hosted in Beijing. Please share if you voluntarily choose this over Google. **Further reading:** There's a [very good post on the privacy aspects of A-GPS](https://blog.wirelessmoves.com/2014/08/supl-reveals-my-identity-and-location-to-google.html) and how the gps.conf route might not work, as some GPS chips bypass the OS completely, so I recommend a read through that. This is followed up by a [German blog post](https://www.kuketz-blog.de/android-imsi-leaking-bei-gps-positionsbestimmung/). That said, there is surprisingly very little information on this topic given the severity of the privacy implications. Note: - SUPL is not the same thing as NLP (Network Location Provider), which is not present on LOS without GAPPS - For anyone wondering, Advanced Mobile Location (AML, which Google calls Emergency Location Service; ELS) will become compulsory in the EU in 2020 and should not be present in LOS, because it is a part of Google Play Services - As linked above, this might not work for all devices, as some have SUPL running on the GPS radio level, which means that anything you do on the Android OS level will have no effect - both supl.nokia.com and supl.iusacell.com are confirmed offline   # **4) AOSP Webview** **Default set-up:** LineagOS uses 'AOSP Webview' (listed under 'Android System Webview' in Apps), which offers apps basic browser capabilities. AOSP Webview is different to Chrome, which handles Webview in Android 7 onwards - but AOSP Webview, like the Chromium browser, is open-source but not fully degoogled - although it is better than the proprietary Chrome. **Solution:** Replace AOSP Webview with a more degoogled impletentation; [Bromite's SystemWebView](https://www.bromite.org/system_web_view). **How-to:** Download Bromite SystemWebView apk, (from their F-Droid repo or directly), and then follow the [official installation instructions](https://github.com/bromite/bromite/wiki/Installing-SystemWebView). Note: It is possible to firewall Webview, and this would show the user which apps rely on its functionality, before a replacement is made.   # **5) Project Fi** **Default set-up:** Certain [Project Fi devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Fi#Devices) have extra Google apps to [function properly](https://old.reddit.com/r/LineageOS/comments/823m9r/why_do_i_still_have_google_connectivity_services/). **Solution:** Remove Project Fi apps for those LineageOS users that are not Project Fi customers WARNING: Uninstall system apps at your own risk (may cause system crash)! **How-to:** Uninstall the following apps using a (root-requiring) system app removal tool of choice or via adb ([instructions](https://www.xda-developers.com/uninstall-carrier-oem-bloatware-without-root-access/)): X Google enrollment (com.android.hotwordenrollment.xgoogle) T Google enrollment (com.android.hotwordenrollment.tgoogle) OK Google enrollment (com.android.hotwordenrollment.okgoogle) Tycho (com.google.android.apps.tycho) Google Connectivity Services (com.google.android.apps.gcs) Carrier Services (com.google.android.ims) [source](https://github.com/lineageos4microg/l4m_website/issues/16#issuecomment-374364988) Presence of the above apps on following devices: Device | X/T/OK Google enrollment | Tycho | Google Connectivity Services | Carrier Services :--|:-:|:-:|:-:|:-: Google Pixel XL (marlin) | yes | | | Google Pixel 2 (walleye) | yes | yes | yes | yes Google Pixel 2 XL (taimen) | yes | yes | yes | yes Google Pixel C (dragon) | yes | | yes | Google Nexus 6P (angler) | yes | yes | yes | yes Google Nexus 5X (bullhead) | yes | yes | yes | yes Essential PH-1 (mata) | yes | | | Google Nexus 6 (shamu) | | yes | yes | yes Motorola Moto X 2015 (clark) | | | yes | Motorola Moto G4 (athene) | | | | yes [Source](https://github.com/lineageos4microg/l4m_website/issues/16#issuecomment-374491502)   ** Note about where a service is located** This guide is about de-googling, but attention should also be paid to the company that provides hosting for the above Google alternatives, as well as the country in which this alternative service is being hosted. More information about Five/Nine/Fourteen Eyes countries can be found on [privacytools.io](https://www.privacytools.io/classic/#ukusa).   **FINAL NOTE:** Big thanks to everyone that helped with feedback on the [first version](https://old.reddit.com/r/LineageOS/comments/ccs5wy/degoogling_lineageos_in_2019/) of these instructions and an even bigger thanks to the LineageOS team for creating such an awesome ROM, without which we would have never tasted "Googless Freedom" (trademark pending)