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Updated instructions based on feedback - should be usable now. First version [here](   **Assumptions:** - Phone running Lineage OS 14.1, 15.1 or 16.0 (note that each LOS version might require a different solution) - Root access (either official su package or unofficial magisk) - No OpenGApps or unofficial addons like microG   The following are listed in no particular order:   ## **1) DNS** **Default set-up:** LineageOS uses AOSP default DNS servers, which are Google's DNS servers **Solution:** Replace Google's DNS servers with those of a preffered DNS provider (see below for recommendations). **How-to:** LOS 16.0: Settings > Network & internet > Advanced > Private DNS > Private DNS provider hostname > [enter your preferred DNS provider hostname here. Traditional IP addresses are not accepted in this field, so you need to enter a hostname of a provider that supports DNS-over-TLS (DoT)] LOS 14.1 and 15.1: i) Manual edit for each network (works only for wi-fi). Cumbersome and impractical when connecting to more wifi hotspots and unusable when connecting to public hotspots or using mobile data. Wifi list -> Long press select network -> Modify network -> IP settings from DHCP to Static -> Fill out all fields. ii) Bypass by using a VPN tunnel. Either a full on VPN (OpenVPN or Wireguard) or a DNS-only VPN ([DNS66]( or []( Simple, but more of a circumvention than solution. Requires background VPN to be constantly on (battery usage increase can be significant). iii) App 'DNS man' on [F-Droid]( Unmaintained since 2016, but could work -> has 4 setting methods -> try System properties first. iv) For Magisk users, you can use the [CloudflareDNS4Magisk Module]( v) [UNCONFIRMED!] Manual edit of /system/build.prop by adding the following lines net.dns1= net.dns2= net.rmnet0.dns1= net.rmnet0.dns2= net.wlan0.dns1= net.wlan0.dns2=   DNS provider recommendations (get DNS server IP addresses from the sites directly): 1. [Cloudflare](, offers DoT (for LOS 16 Private DNS), global, 2. [OpenNIC](, no DoT, global, 3. [DNSWatch](, no DoT, Germany, 4. [UncensoredDNS](, DoT (on, Denmark, 5. [CZ.NIC](, DoT, Czech Republic. [Wikipedia list of DNS providers](   # **2) Captive Portals** **Default set-up:** The Captive Portal detection checks for a HTTP 204 code from a Google domain ( for LOS 13+) **Solution:** Replace Google's captive portal server with a third party alternative. **How-to:** Enter the following in terminal (or use adb - for that method, see German source below) and for the domains pick your preferred option from the list below: For LOS 14.1: su settings put captive_portal_server settings put global captive_portal_http_url settings put global captive_portal_https_url For LOS 15.1 and 16.0: su su settings put global captive_portal_http_url settings put global captive_portal_https_url settings put global captive_portal_fallback_url settings put global captive_portal_other_fallback_urls   Select a non-Google server from the following options: [Source, German]( Site and server belong to Mike Kuketz; a German security researcher. Based on his blog and privacy policy, Mike is the genuine article. Reach your own conclusion, but I have zero qualms recommending his server. I also encourage reading through his site and forum (German only). Great posts for privacy-conscious users. (if you forget the "/" at the end, it won't work) and (for http) Hosted at ScaleWay. These are newly set-up check servers by the people behind the /e/ ROM, which is based on LOS and focuses on user-privacy. Hosted at Cloudflare. ElementaryOS is a, dare I say it, game-changing linux distro based off of Ubuntu and which puts heavy focus on UI and UX - think of them as the macOS of linux. Hosted at Microsoft's Azure. Site created by two US IT professionals. Claim no data stored.   Further reading on Android captive portals with explained commands is [here]( and [here]( **Notes:** - Do not use as previously suggested. It does not work correctly, is hosted on Google Cloud and the Ubuntu community (not only on reddit) is quite touchy when you try to raise this issue and suggest they self-host. - whatever server you choose (and yes, you can make one yourself), make sure it returns a HTTP 204 code (use curl -I to make sure)   # **3) A-GPS** **Default set-up:** LineageOS defaults to for [SUPL data](, which helps in speeding up device positioning (aka TTFF) when using A-GPS, but each request to server is accompanied by device's IMEI. **Solution:** replace every mention of Google's A-GPS SUPL servers in /system/etc/gps.conf with that of one of the following servers. Apparently, disabling A-GPS and using GPS only might not help. Sadly, very little credible research exists on this topic. Firewalling GPS is also a possible solution. Note that this increases TTFF, as it relies solely on GPS sattelite signal instead of local cell tower data. Servers found: * - Working (port 7275 is open), located in Ireland, hosted with Amazon. * - Working (port 7275 is open), located in Germany, self-hosted. * - live, but port is filtered, located in France, self-hosted. * - live, but port is filtered, located in Australia, self-hosted. * - default Xiaomi SUPL server IP, belonging to state-owned China Mobile and hosted in Beijing. Please share if you voluntarily choose this over Google.   **Further reading:** There's a [very good post on the privacy aspects of A-GPS]( and how the gps.conf route might not work, as some GPS chips bypass the OS completely, so I recommend a read through that. This is followed up by a [German blog post]( That said, there is surprisingly very little information on this topic given the severity of the privacy implications. Note: - SUPL is not the same thing as NLP (Network Location Provider), which is not present on LOS without GAPPS - For anyone wondering, Advanced Mobile Location (AML, which Google calls Emergency Location Service; ELS) will become compulsory in the EU in 2020 and should not be present in LOS, because it is a part of Google Play Services - As linked above, this might not work for all devices, as some have SUPL running on the GPS radio level, which means that anything you do on the Android OS level will have no effect - both and are confirmed offline   # **4) AOSP Webview** **Default set-up:** LineagOS uses 'AOSP Webview' (listed under 'Android System Webview' in Apps) - this is different to Chrome, which handles Webview in Android 7 onwards - but AOSP Webview, like the Chromium browser, is open-source but not fully degoogled - although it is better than the proprietary Chrome. **Solution:** Replace AOSP Webview with a more degoogled impletentation; [Bromite's SystemWebView]( **How-to:** Download Bromite SystemWebView apk, (from their F-Droid repo or directly), and then follow the [official installation instructions](   # **5) Project Fi** **Default set-up:** Certain [Project Fi devices]( have extra Google apps to [function properly]( **Solution:** Remove Project Fi apps for those LineageOS users that are not Project Fi customers WARNING: Uninstall system apps at your own risk (may cause system crash)! **How-to:** Uninstall the following apps using a (root-requiring) system app removal tool of choice or via adb ([instructions]( X Google enrollment ( T Google enrollment ( OK Google enrollment ( Tycho ( Google Connectivity Services ( Carrier Services ( [source]( Presence of the above apps on following devices: Device | X/T/OK Google enrollment | Tycho | Google Connectivity Services | Carrier Services :--|:-:|:-:|:-:|:-: Google Pixel XL (marlin) | yes | | | Google Pixel 2 (walleye) | yes | yes | yes | yes Google Pixel 2 XL (taimen) | yes | yes | yes | yes Google Pixel C (dragon) | yes | | yes | Google Nexus 6P (angler) | yes | yes | yes | yes Google Nexus 5X (bullhead) | yes | yes | yes | yes Essential PH-1 (mata) | yes | | | Google Nexus 6 (shamu) | | yes | yes | yes Motorola Moto X 2015 (clark) | | | yes | Motorola Moto G4 (athene) | | | | yes [Source](   **FINAL NOTE:** Big thanks to everyone that helped with feedback on the [first version]( of these instructions and an even bigger thanks to the LineageOS team for creating such an awesome ROM, without which we would have never tasted "Googless Freedom" (trademark pending)   Edit1: Updated Private DNS instructions requirement IP->hostname. Updated DNS providers and added wiki link. Updated SUPL server list with hosting locations.